Related knowledge of banaba leaf

• Corosolic Acid / Lagerstroemin / Gallotannins: Studies have identified several compounds as responsible for its anti-diabetic activity. corosolic acid Lagerstroemin, an ellagitannin gallotannins, of which PPG – penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose–was identified as the most potent, with a higher glucose transport stimulatory activity than Lagerstroemin. In addition to stimulating glucose uptake in fat cells, it also has anti-adipogenic properties.
• Inhibition of TNF-induced Activation: 
Diabetes leads to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in association with upregulation of vasoactive factors and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activating protein-1. Study results indicate L speciosa can inhibit DNA-binding of NF-kappaB which may explain its possible inhibition of diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. 
• Ellagitannins / Insulin-like Glucose Uptake Stimulatory / Adipocyte Differentiation-Inhibitory Activity: 
Study yielded seven ellagitannins, including lagerstroemin from the leaves of L speciosa. The ellagitannins exhibited strong activities in both stimulating insulin-like glucose uptake and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation . Also, ellagic acid derivatives showed inhibitory effect on glucose transport.
• Glucose Transport Activators: Screening has identified lagerstroemin, flosin, and reginin A as activators of glucose transport in rat fat cells.
• Diabetes: 
Banaba has been extensively studied for its application in the treatment of diabetes. Early on, Its ability to lower blood sugar was attributed to corosolic acid, a triterpenoid glycoside, believed to facilitate glucose-transport into cells.for anti-diabetic activity through activation of glucose transporter activity. One of the active principles from Banaba was the triterpene, corosolic acid.
• Weight loss: 
Studies in mice suggest an antiobesity effect. It is becoming a common ingredient in weight-loss supplements / products as a metabolic enhancer.• Hypertension: It is also being studied for its use in the treatment of blood pressure, renal and immune system benefits.
• Lipid-lowering: 
Studies in mice suggest a lipid lowering effect – decreasing triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. To date, no toxicity has been identified.
• Hypoglycemic Activity of Irradiated Banaba Leaves: Study showed irradiated banaba leaf extract mixed with insulin was found to have a higher hypoglycemic activity compared with mixtures of BLE and insulin. Results may suggest the potential of reducing the cost of insulin management by lessening the dependence on recombinant insulin.
• Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers:
 Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme involved with hyperuricemia, catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. Bioassay-guided fractionation isolated two active compounds from the aqueous extracts of L. speciosa leaves viz. valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) and ellagic acid (EA). XOD (xanthine oxidase)-inhibitory activity of VAD was greater than allopurinol, a drug used as XODi. The study supports the dietary use of the aqueous extracts from Banaba leaves for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia.
• Antidiabetic Activity / Leaves: 
Study showed a significant reduction of blood glucose levels with the soft gel formulation showing better bioavailability than a dry-powder formulation. Study evaluated the effect of leaves on fasting blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Results showed significant decrease in blood glucose at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg. The 800 mg/kg dose was comparable to metformin 62.5 mg/kg. Results suggest favorable effects in protecting alloxan induced hyperglycemia.
• Other studies report potential uses:
antibacterial effects from seed extracts significant protection of HIV-infected cells by ellagic acid constituents antioxidative activity of a water extract inhibition of xanthine oxidase by aqueous extract, 31 and anti-inflammatory activity in mice.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Free Radical Scavenging: 
Study showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Lagerstroemia speciosa.
• Antioxidant / Leaves: 
A hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of L. speciosa demonstrated antioxidant activity in the nitric oxide model.
• Hypoglycemic Activity / Mechanism of Action: 
Study of a hot water extract of leaves of L. speciosa showed hypoglycemic activity on experimental diabetic rats through suppression of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of glucose oxidation using the pentose phosphate pathway.
• Hepatoprotective / Roots: 
L. speciosa roots showed hepatoprotective activity protecting hepatocytes from CCl4-induced liver damages due to antioxidant effect on hepatocytes.
• Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Leaves: 
Study provided important information for the correct identification and herbal standardization of L. speciosa leaves. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, sterol, and saponins. Study suggests the season of collection and storage conditions may lead to fluctuations in the corosolic acid content.
• Safety of Banaba and Corosolic Acid: 
The hypoglycemic effect of banaba has been attributed to corosolic acid and elligatannins. Corosolic acid also exhibited antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic, and osteoblastic activities. Its antidiabetic and lipid effects involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of starches and sucrose, plus other signal transduction factors. No adverse effects were observed in animal studies or controlled human clinical trials.
• Metals in Leaves: 
Study confirmed the presence of essential metals i.e., magnesium, zinc, and iron in Lagerstroemia speciosa. Heavy metals like cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead were below detectable limit. Magnesium and zinc were used in the treatment of type II diabetes. Study supports the anti-diabetic activity of the species.
• Hypoglycemic: 
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of L. speciosa in STZ-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic male albino Wistar rats. Results showed significant decrease in fasting serum glucose levels, accompanied by decreased glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile.
• Effect of Extract on Hyperglycemia and Obesity: 
Study showed a unique combination of a glucose uptake stimulatory activity and effective inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by IS-IBMX-DEX in 3T3-L1 cells suggesting use in prevention and treatment of hyperglycemia and obesity in type II diabetes.

• Hepatoprotective / CCl4 Toxicity / Flowers: Study of ethanol extracts of petals showed in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective properties against carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in Swiss albino mice. The antioxidant activities of the flower extract were higher than curcumin or ascorbic acid. Results suggest L. speciosa flowers is a reservoir of antioxidant and hepatoprotective components.
• Banaba and Coroslic Acid in the Management of Diabetes and Its Complications: There is a growing body of evidence from animal and human studies as well as in vitro systems that banaba leaf extracts exert antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. Strong evidence indicate both corosolic acid and ellagitanins are responsible for these effects. No adverse effects have been reported in animals or in controlled human clinical trials. However, no animal studies have specifically addressed toxicity or LD50 values for corosolic acid and Banaba extracts standardized to specific concentrations of corosolic acid. Additional human efficacy and safety studies are warranted, as well as additional acute and subchronic animal safety studies.