Apoptosis, the major form of cell suicide, is critical to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Hence, it is clear that the dysregulation of apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several of human diseases, including cancer .Over the years, accumulating evidence clearly indicates that anticancer drugs are able to induce apoptosis and that this process is involved in the mediation of their cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, the selective regulation of the apoptotic pathway in cancer cells, and not in normal cells has been the goal of cancer researchers
Over the past few decades, agents derived from medicinal plants have gained a great deal of attention from researchers and clinicians due to their safety, efficacy and availability. In addition, secondary metabolites and structural derivatives from natural sources have been applied towards treating cancer for the past five decades. At least 40% of all available anticancer drugs between 1940 and 2002 have originated from natural sources or mimics of natural agents . Although a number of natural agents have shown an ability to prevent and treat cancer, their molecular mechanisms of action have been poorly defined. One such agent is corosolic acid , which was originally isolated from the fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida var. psilosa . CA is an ursane-type pentacyclic triterpene, which exists in abundance in the plant kingdom. It has been found in various plants, including Schisandra chinensis, Eriobotrya japonica (known as loquat) , Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (known as Banaba) , Orthosiphon stamineus and Weigela subsessilis . CA has been shown to exert numerous biological activities, such as anti-diabetic , antioxidant , anti-atherosclerotic, cholesterol-reducing, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities . Previous studies have reported that CA suppresses the proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, including sarcoma, glioblastoma , osteosarcoma, leukemia , as well as gastric , cervical and lung cancer cells
The mechanisms through which CA exerts these effects are not yet fully understood. However, this triterpene has been known to target numerous cell signaling molecules, such as nuclear factor-κB , signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 AMP-activated protein kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin , epidermal growth factor receptor 2/ neu , protein kinase C GLUT4 , glycogen phosphorylase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase , as well as caspases.
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The above information about banaba leaf extract is from the Internet and literature for reference only.