Diabetes mellitus is one of the world’s major health problems. In the developed countries, diabetes mellitus patients may have proper treatments, such as controlled low sugar diet and administration of insulin and/or hypoglycaemic agents. Unfortunately, patients in the developing countries may not be able to afford these methods due to their socio-economic conditions. This fact has prompted to the high prevalence of noncompliance observed in minority, disadvantaged communities in the developed countries, and rural folks in the developing countries.In addition, medical centers are not always available within the reach of these population groups, and rural folks prefer to seek traditional medications rather than the modern ones. In Asia and South America, the development and use of inexpensive and easily accessible phytomedicines from plants of the genus Syzygium in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is encouraged to overcome these problems.
Corosolic acid is one of the secondary metabolites contained in the leaf of banaba leaf, which has antidiabetic activity.4,5 Miura and coworkers6 reported an acute hypoglycemic effect of corosolic acid, which was shown by an increase in GLUT4 translocation in mouse muscle. In addition, they also found that corosolic acid promotes glucose metabolism by reducing insulin resistance. The action of insulin is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation and initiated by the binding of insulin to the insulin receptor. Corosolic acid may act as an insulin sensitizer, enhancing insulin receptor B phosphorylation indirectly by inhibiting certain nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases.7 Latter, Fukushima et al.5 have discovered corosolic acid ability to reduce post challenge plasma glucose levels in humans. Another study reported that corosolic acid inhibited gluconeogenesis by increasing the production of the gluconeogenic intermediate fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in isolated.
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